Use these interpretive questions as starting points to inspire a few tailored questions that guide the group to a consensus. An eliminativist, who holds that purposive concepts are (supposed to be) based on the evidence they (try to) explain, will have to answer yes to this question. � � � � 8 � , � Z � > > " ` ` ` A A A � � � � � � � , R b � � . is supposed to explain the behavior of everyone, oneself included, not just of �others�. Different interpretations can be perfectly consistent with the same set of underlying facts. At the same time, both theories R and B will of course be �under-determined by the data� which supports them. This is not just comical; it is incoherent. Rather than pursuing this issue now, however, I will start by assuming the reality of the mistake satirized by Griffith, where the form of the mistake seems to be that the observer misinterprets the actions she is observing while realizing that they are indeed intentional actions. So the picture is this. (The term interpretive services includes interpretive talks, guided hikes, classroom presentations, brochures, museum exhibits, films, website, etc.) Figuring out where to start, what literary elements to analyze and what to interpret does not have to be an impossible task. Suppose I am at what seems to me a very boring party. But one might also make the more serious mistake of not realizing that intentional actions were being performed at all. ). According to Wittgenstein, �It is, of course, imaginable that two people belonging to a tribe unacquainted with games should sit at a chess-board and go through the moves of a game of chess; and even with all the appropriate mental accompaniments.� (Philosophical Investigations, #200) I am simplifying things here since there is another account of function which doesn�t depend on evolution, roughly the �causal role� account. To serve its purpose of course it must have some color, for instance. So not all intentional actions are done for reasons. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020. of or relating to those arts that require an intermediary, as a performer, for realization, as in music or theater. Being an agent, acting with some purpose, is itself a certain sort of �mental� state. More than one purpose or set of purposes is always consistent with the actual underlying facts about the objects or events on which the purpose supervenes. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. Both theories are consistent with all observations so far. So what would have gone wrong if an observer, seeing what is in fact a football game, takes it as some sort of ritualized debate followed by fisticuffs, in the way Griffith pretended to? It would be as if we were condemned to being merely internal observers of the motions and sounds we were making, forever trying to figure out what we ourselves were doing. But the predictions the two theories make about where the object will be observed apply to all possible observations, not just the ones already made. It says nothing about why this relation holds. They supervene on the underlying facts but they allow ranges of facts, rather than specifying specific underlying facts at every point, as determinate theories do. Such a solipsist would simply deny the applicability of intentional or purposive predicates to others than herself. An eliminativist will have to hold that the form of solipsism we are considering here is in fact not coherent since it doesn�t apply neurophysiological explanations to everyone it should apply to, oneself as well as others. In addition to fundamental paradigmatic differences in ontological and epistemological assumptions discussed above, interpretive and positivist research differ in several other ways. Interpretivist Epistemology. What’s The Difference Between “Yule” And “Christmas”? | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Interpretive Exercise s Submitted by: 7 October Word Count 000 BIB230A-ON25 Fall Interpreting the Bible Re: Grasping God’s Word Textbook, Chapter 9: WORD STUDIES Assignment 9-2, Pp. 13-42. If it is coherent to suppose that one might oneself be the only purposive agent in existence, then the concept of a purposive agent is not dependent on having a place in theories explaining the behavior of other people. Notice however that this tells us nothing about whether what you and I have done is actually unfair. Once one agrees that there are such things as intentional states, purposes, and the like, the evidence that others have these states is overwhelming. . The first sort of error though was an error of interpretation. If either happens the rock will have served its purpose. The two methodologies of research, known as qualitative and quantitative research, explore topics with different objectives. Once one sees that it is possible for something to have purposes and other intentional states, the evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of the claim that others do indeed have them. There will be some underlying facts that are allowed by one interpretation and not by the other. Or they might hit it with a tire and change course slightly. So none of the things our space alien observes, such as the movements the players make, or the sounds that come from their mouths, are in dispute between the correct interpretation and the mistaken one. � 2 �G(� � k Z � � * 0 Z � � � � � � . There are two things to notice about this position. It is true that there can�t be two sets of events which are exactly the same in all relevant respects but one of which is correctly described as a football game and the other of which is not. They specify the goals, purposes or points of the things we do. But we can imagine an observer who does even worse than that. 1. In specifying that only interpretative errors are involved though I am supposing that none of the �underlying� physical states, movements and the like have been mistaken by the observer. This would be to understand the behavior being observed in the way we often look on the behavior of lower animals, insects for instance: complicated behavior produced by complex brain responses to the environment but not intentional actions. So if Griffith had thought he was witnessing a horse race rather than a football game, his mistake could have been traced to a mistake about this underlying fact. You will not be able to formulate and answer these questions by citing information directly from the text but by thinking beyond the textual level.These questions help you to read a literary text as a literary text. Explanations of actions in terms of the agent�s reasons do not cover everything agents do intentionally. 8. An interpretive mistake of this sort will at least involve misattributions of some intentional states to the people on the field. Your case is called first, all the relevant facts come out, and you are found not guilty. Contrast this with our two interpretations of what is happening on the football field. On exactly these grounds, I want to claim that so far as the relation of supervenience goes someone can without logical or nomological error deny, for instance, that what she is observing is a football game and yet accept all the underlying facts on which its being a football game supervene. Our grounds for having these concepts, that is, for thinking that they apply at all, are not based on the phenomena to which they apply but arise independently of the explanations in which they are used. Still, I need to keep running. We have two completely different interpretations of exactly the same set of underlying facts. in trying to figure out the purposes of the motions and sounds she observes herself making. each theory either predicts the object occupies that part of space or that it does not. What Is an Interpretive Essay? This is, or at least seems to be, a coherent position. When a new observation is made, say by making another pass with our radar, the position of the object is consistent with the predictions of theory R but not those of theory B. Of course these events really are complex interactions of some of the local fauna. But we are not dealing with two (correctly interpreted) sets of events here, only one set, interpreted in two different ways, one of which is mistaken. See more. Even non-sentient things such as flower petals can have them. That is the fundamental reason why the underlying facts for any interpretation need not entail or even be nomologically connected to just one interpretation. It has to presuppose that the internal observer is herself acting with some purpose of which she is aware, i.e. The answer is that electrons are hypothesized by empirically very well established physical theory. expense. And my claim is that, given all this, since the elements of both interpretations will be claimed to supervene on exactly the same set of underlying facts, the difference between the correct interpretation and the incorrect one cannot be found in those underlying facts. For an eliminativist, purposes are simply crude or defective empirically based concepts. So consider the difference between two theories supposed to describe the motion of some object through space. In general when objects have purposes those purposes are served by specific features of the objects, such as, in the case of this rock, the fact that it might do some damage to one�s car to hit it. The judge hearing our cases is mistaken about one case and since the facts of our two cases are the same what makes the one ruling mistaken and the other one correct cannot be a mistake about any of those facts. Each leaves plenty of things �open�. This of course was famously questioned by Wittgenstein and his followers. In the football example the indeterminacy arises from the fact that the events being interpreted involve groups of people and numerous choices on the part of those involved. I have been arguing that interpretations are indeterminate, whether they are about the actions of individual agents or about events that involve cooperation among several agents. But, unlike the theories of the moving object, the interpretations of the events on the football field are indeterminate with respect to some of the underlying facts on which they supervene. What are the negative aspects of this situation? Each interpretation makes predictions about what will happen, say, in the next minute. Even if all my movements, even all my thoughts, would be the same whether I were merely out jogging or trying to escape some bad guys, the point of what I am doing would be quite different in the two cases. An interpretive essay is an essay that provides an analysis of another piece of writing. Griffith was just being funny, of course, but the possibility of misunderstanding in this way is a real one. A few blocks along, just as I come to a fork in the road, I pass Andy Griffith, who thinks I am out for my usual evening run. To do that is to give what I am calling an interpretative explanation. Then the whole thing was repeated. Purposes necessarily involve the sort of indeterminacy we have seen in the interpretations we have looked at. We need to distinguish errors of interpretation from those based on mistakes about the underlying facts being interpreted. But of course neurophysiology (eventually, when complete, etc.) But it does not explain why these, or any, interpretations have this feature. This is a way of saying that �purposiveness� is not a theoretical concept, used in and dependant on explanations of behavior. Dictionary.com Unabridged The title of Griffith�s piece was �What It Was, Was Football�. The judge has been inconsistent. Even for that rock, its purpose might be achieved in more than one way. But this is not how it is. Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. This indeterminacy is equally characteristic of any explanation that appeals to an agent�s reasons for doing whatever she did. A rock might function to keep moisture in the soil under it from evaporating for instance. 5. And these events are obviously open to causal explanation as long as we describe them in terms of their physical or chemical makeup. Similarly for the sort of debate tournament we are supposing for the alternative interpretation. Each leaves lots of possibilities open, even for the underlying facts relevant to the interpretation. But, given that, the rock still has a purpose and that purpose creates an �intensional� context in the sentences in which it is referred to, just as any other intentional state does. But the answer has to be no. Without the intentional and purposive concepts, the outer space visitor of course losses badly. And they respond by calling forth the interpretive genius of their conductor. Rather I did not see what I thought I did. But, if I am right, in contrast to the two theories of the object detected by our radar, none of these facts, either the ones already checked or the ones �predicted� by the two interpretations, need be inconsistent with either interpretation. All these sources of indeterminacy are, I think, consequences of the fact that purposes are �intentional states� in something at least very like the way beliefs and desires are, which is why inanimate things such as rocks can have purposes only if someone has a purpose for them. Interpreting some set of events as a horse race, for instance, is not consistent with a complete lack of horses, though that is allowed by a football game interpretation. This assumption will be defended below. This is the actual claim, but I will sometimes abbreviate this by saying that the two interpretations supervene on the same underlying facts. purposes and intentions are, while for others one only knows for sure about the various movements and sounds their bodies produce. So this won�t prevent her from describing with complete accuracy, and to any level of detail her observational powers allow, everything that happens on the field. In the case satirized by Griffith the observer sees that he is observing people who are performing intentional actions. An assignment to interpret a work of literature can seem overwhelming. Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist,” or the opposite of a hero or heroine? In this paper I will argue that what I will call �interpretative explanations� are both central to explanations of human action and irreducibly different in form from other commonsense explanations of events, as well as from explanations found in paradigm �hard� sciences such as physics. He pretends to misinterpreted what they are doing. (euphemistic) An excuse, apologetic justification not based on enough evidence. Before we get into the how, we have to figure out the what. offering interpretations, explanations, or guidance, as through lectures, brochures, or films: the museum's interpretive … If that were the only correct way to look at behavior, as some philosophers have held, it would follow that the mistake satirized by Griffith would not be any more mistaken than any other interpretation. It leads to a regress, since interpretation is itself a purposive activity. In particular it cannot be found in any of the causal relations included in those underlying facts. Learn more. There are a few things to notice here before explaining how indeterminacy enters into this story. That won�t always be the case with any two interpretations. First, obviously this rock has this purpose only because Steve has a purpose for it. And Buridan cases of this sort are common. In saying that the two interpretations of what is happening on that field are indeterminate, however, I am saying something different. One, the correct one, says that a football game is in progress. 4. We Asked, You Answered. The driveway is also narrow enough that if you drive in then, when you want to leave, you have to back out, since it is very difficult to turn around. Suppose you have a complete physiological theory of how human bodies work. If that happens, then whatever exactly these facts turn out to be, they are consistent with both interpretations. Dennett imagines a �predicting contest� between a human using the ordinary, purposive interpretations and an outer space alien such as the one imagined above who knows all the underlying physically described facts but uses no purposive or intentional concepts. The most straightforward way to draw this distinction is by saying that the first sort of error involves misattributing at least one intentional state, such as my wife meaning something by rolling her eyes, while the second sort need not. That is why it is unobjectionable to assume that both the correct, football, interpretation and the incorrect, ritualized debate, interpretation can agree completely about the underlying facts on which each supervenes. Nor can we say that because my conscious decision would be different in each case there must be a difference in the underlying facts for the two interpretations. For two teams to be playing a game of football, the players must have many of a very large but indefinite set of intentional states. Many of the so-called �basic actions� by which one performs the (less basic) actions which one performs for reasons are still intentional actions. Learn more. I don�t want to get caught. Some of the topics most studied through the interpretive paradigm are the following: Like the name suggests, an interpretive essay is one in which you interpret a piece of literature—a book, essay, play, or poem. Daphne Merkin on Lena Dunham, Book Criticism, and Self-Examination, The Stacks: The Eyes of Winter: Paul Newman at 70, The Gregory Brothers and the Rise of the Remix Video, Library of the World's Best Literature, Ancient and Modern, Vol. Similarly for size and shape. Interpretation definition, the act of interpreting; elucidation; explication: This writer's work demands interpretation. First, there are plenty of features of that rock that have nothing directly to do with its purpose of keeping people from driving into that ditch when backing out of Steve�s driveway. I came [to personal essays] through the route of, if you want to call it intellection or a kind of interpretive [genre]. Suppose we are technicians looking through the records of radar scans taken on some remote island, covering some part of the sky for the last few minutes. The answer to that question, I think, is to be found in the same thing that makes one interpretation correct and another one mistaken. Being underdetermined by the data just means that the implications of the theory go beyond the evidence for it. On such a view both characterizations of what is going on are equally mistaken. (It is for instance the position dualists seem forced into by �other minds skepticism.�) It is not incoherent even if it seems very implausible. ` � � B F � � � R $ v � A � � � . What might be some of the causes of this … 7, Manasses (Bull Run) National Battlefield Park-Virginia. But that doesn�t seem at all plausible if, as I am claiming, exactly the same thing applies to football games. If we return now to actions and the events that constitute actions, we shouldn�t be surprised that we find these same sorts of indeterminacy. Even leaving aside the fact that I need not have made any conscious decision, the purpose of what I am doing is not always the same as the explicit decision I come to, or even my belief I have about what I am doing. They contribute to these explanations, that is, the idea that there are electrons is empirically applicable. For each interpretation there are lots of underlying facts, relevant to the interpretation, which can either obtain or not without affecting the truth of the interpretation. The paradigm first person example of purposes is surely not just describing one�s own purposes to oneself, that is, thinking that one has a purpose of some sort. So explanations of actions in terms of the agent�s reasons are frequently indeterminate in the same way an interpretation of those events on that field as a football game is indeterminate, and for the same reason. of or relating to those arts that require an intermediary, as a performer, for realization, as in music or theater. But within limits, it probably doesn�t matter what color the rock is. Rocks can�t have functions of that sort, not being organisms or parts of organisms. But it would be a mistake to think that indeterminacy only arises where the events being interpreted involve groups of people. Having a purpose, acting with some purpose, is itself a �state� of an agent, frequently perfectly conscious, different from merely attributing such a state to someone, even oneself. Therefore, it is a type of research that is widely used in sociology, psychology and anthropology. ��ࡱ� > �� � � ���� � � ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �a �� � jbjb1�1� " [� [� N� % � �� �� �� � � � � � . Yes, that was interpretive dance accompanying those Oscar-nominated film scores. But, so far as this purpose is concerned, it doesn�t matter which happens. He would have misinterpreted what he saw. For example, a situation in which one friend walks past another without acknowledgement. And to do that I must go one way or the other. 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